Hard solders are used for brazing, and melt at higher temperatures. Alloys of copper with either zinc or silver are the most common.
In silversmithing or jewelry making, special hard solders are used that will pass away assay. They contain a high proportion of the metal being soldered and lead is not used in these alloys. These solders vary in hardness, designated as “enameling”, “hard”, “medium” and “easy”. Enameling solder has a high melting point, close to that of the material itself, to prevent the joint desoldering during firing in the enameling process. The remaining solder types are used in decreasing order of hardness during the process of making an item, to prevent a previously soldered seam or joint desoldering while additional sites are soldered. Easy solder is also often used for repair work for the same reason. Flux or rouge is also used to prevent joints from desoldering.
Silver solder is also used in manufacturing to join metal parts that cannot be welded. The alloys used for these purposes contain a high proportion of silver (up to 40%), and may also contain cadmium.